Book Title: Guru Geethaya | ගුරු ගීතය. Author: Chingees Aithmathawu Language: Sinhala File Format: pdf. File SizeMB. Download. Guru Geethaya is an upcoming Sri Lankan Sinhala-language drama film based on Chinghiz Aitmatov's best-selling novel, The First Teacher published in Author, Dadigama V Rodrigu. ISBN, Publisher, SAMEERA PUBLICATIONS. Pages, Size, x x cm. Weight, Our Price, Rs.
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Guru Geethaya is a book translated to Sinhalese(my native language) by Dadigama V Rudrugu in a way back when. The original title is Der. GURU GEETHAYA. Type, Price. Paper Back, LKR. Book Description. Book Details. ISBN ISBN Award Winning Books for Past Years · Award Winning Books(Baudda Sahithya Sammana) · Award Winning Books(Godage Sahithya Sammana).
So don't you try getting us all mixed up! Those times are past. With shaking fingers he tore at the hooks on his coat, fumbled in the great pocket of his tunic, got out a piece of paper folded in four, hastily shook it out and held it high above his head.
Who gave you land and water? Who gave you freedom? All right, who's against the laws of the Soviet Government? Speak up. No one said a word. People stood with heads hung low, in silence. We lived in darkness.
And now the Soviet Government wants us to see the light, it wants us to learn to read and write. The old man in the badly worn fur coat was the first to speak. That stable on the hill wants repairing, a bridge has to be built across the stream, we'll need firewood for the winter He spat through his teeth and fixed a malevolent look on Duishen, screwing up one eye.
How do you expect to live, my good man? By stealing the herds of others, perhaps? I'll be getting a salary. You can do your own worrying then, djigit, and you can teach the children for the salary you're getting. The state has money enough, just leave us in peace, we've cares enough as it is.
The others started off after him. Duishen remained standing there all alone, holding the paper in his hands, looking lost and miserable. I felt sorry for him, and stood staring with dumb sympathy until my uncle chased me away. What are you gaping at?
Go home at once! Next morning, when we girls went to fetch water from the stream, we saw Duishen wading across to the other side. He carried a shovel, a hoe, an axe and an old pail. Every morning after that, the villagers saw Duishen's black-clad solitary figure trudging uphill to the abandoned stable.
And it was not until late in the evening that he came down to the village again. Often he would be seen carrying a huge bundle or dry thistles of straw on his back. Men sighting him from afar would raise themselves up on their stirrups and, shielding their eyes with a hand, exchange remarks about him. Look at the bundle he's lugging, he's no better than a bey's servant women. There's power in that seal. This mud building had once belonged to the bey.
He kept his mares there, which had foaled in the winter. Then Soviet power was established, the bey went away, abandoning his property. Nobody even went there and the place was overgrown with burdock.
But now we saw that the burdock had all been rooted out and stacked in a pile, and the yard had been cleaned. The crumbling, rain-damaged walls had been plastered with clay, and the warped door that had always sagged on one hinge had been fixed and was properly closed now.
We dropped our bags on the ground to rest a bit, and at that moment Duishen came out. He was spattered all over with clay and looked startled at first, but then he smiled at us. We were squatting on the ground beside our bags, too embarrassed to speak.
Duishen, realizing that shyness was making us tongue-tied, tried to put us at our ease with a friendly wink and smile. I've just finished building a stove of sorts, and there's the chimney, see? Ah I have to do now is get in a supply of fuel for the winter, but that'll be easy, there's plenty of thistles growing all around. We'll put lots of straw on the floor to sit on and start lessons.
And you're a good girl. I'm sure, eh? Would you like to see inside? Duishen took a length of rope and a sickle and started off. We got to our feet, hoisted the bags onto our backs, and trotted back to the village.
Suddenly, I had a bright idea. Mother will scold me if I'm home late. I still don't know why I acted as I did that day. Perhaps it was sheer stubbornness, or an uncontrollable urge to rebel, having had all my impulses and desires crushed since infancy with cruel cuffs and scolding; an urge to do something good for this man, a total stranger really, for his smile which warmed my heart, for trusting me if only a little, for saying those few kind words. And I know it now, I know it without a doubt that my real life with all its joys and sufferings began that day; with the thing I did then.
For that was the first time in my life I did something on my own decision, something I considered right, without hesitation or fear of punishment. Deserted by my friends, I hurried back to Duishen's school, emptied my bag beside the door, and ran as fast as I could through the ravines and glades to gather more cow dung.
I ran heedlessly as if on wings, my heart beating happily as if I had just performed some wonderful feat. The sun seemed to know why I was so happy. Yes, I do believe that it knew why I was running with such light- hearted abandon: because I had done a good deed. The sun had already sunk to the hilltops, but I thought it was reluctant to disappear; it wanted to go on watching me. It made my way beautifully coloring the shriveled, yellowing grass and leaves a generous crimson, rose and purple.
The tassels of the dry feather grass were like a flickering flame as they flashed past.
The metal buttons on my patched and mended beshmet blazed in the sun. See how proud I am? I'm going to study, I shall go to school and bring others there! It was the strangest thing, so many cows grazed here in the summer, there was always plenty of dry dung, and now it had all vanished. Maybe I wasn't really looking for it? The farther a field I ran the less I found. Still my bag was only half-full. Meanwhile the sunset glow had dimmed, and darkness was quickly flooding the glens.
Never before had I stayed out so late alone. Night spread its somber wing over the silent, desolate hills.
Frightened out of my wits, I slung the bag on my shoulder and flew to the village. It was so creepy I wanted to scream and sob, but, strangely, the thought of Duishen made me stifle my cries.
I controlled myself with an effort never taking a backward glance to see what furies were pursuing me. I reached home out of breath, dripping with sweat and covered with dust. Panting, I stumbled into the house. My aunt, who was sitting in front of the fire, got up and advanced on me with an ominous scowl. She was a mean, cruel woman. What did you want in that school anyway? Why couldn't you go and die out there?
No, a wolf cub will never make a house dog! Other people's children try to be a help at home, but not you, never! Afterwards, squatting in front of the fire which I had to tend, I wept quietly, without a sound, as I stroked our gray cat which always seemed to know when I was in trouble and would jump into my lap to comfort me.
I wasn't crying because my aunt had beaten me, I was used to that but because I knew she would never let me go to school. Two days later, very early in the morning, dogs began to bark excitedly all over the village, and voices could be heard talking loudly.
It was Duishen going from house to house collecting the children and taking them to school. We had no streets in those days, our gray mud huts were scattered about the village in disorder, everyone built where the fancy took him.
Duishen, surrounded by a noisy crowd of children, was calling on one family after the next. Our house was the end one. My aunt and I were grinding millet in a wooden mortar, and my uncle was busy digging up the wheat he kept in a hole beside the barn to take it to market. We brought the heavy pestles down in turns like proper blacksmiths, but I kept glancing at the road to see where Duishen was going.
I was afraid he wouldn't come as far as our house.
Though I knew my aunt wouldn't let me go to school, I wanted Duishen to come and see where I lived. In my heart I begged him not to turn back before he reached our place.
And if god doesn't, the whole crowd of us will, see how many we are? She made a low, inarticulate sound in reply; my uncle did not even bother to give the teacher a look. Duishen was not put out by this reception.
He sat down on a log that lay in the middle of the yard, and got out pencil and paper. Obviously, she was not going to talk to him. I squirmed: what was going to happen now? Duishen glanced at me and smiled. And again my heart felt warmed. I did not have the courage to reply. Even girls who live with their fathers and mothers not sluts like her - even they don't learn reading and writing.
You've got a crowd together, go ahead and head them to school, there's nothing for you here. Is there a law, perhaps, forbidding orphans to learn? You don't need this girl perhaps, but we do, the Soviet state does.
If you go against us, we will make you take orders from us. Who feeds and clothes her? Me or you, the son of a tramp and a homeless tramp yourself? He hated it when his wife meddled in things that were no business of hers, forgetting that she had a husband and master in the house.
He sometimes gave her terrible beatings for this. And now, too, he saw red. Try to jabber less and do more. And you, son of Tashtanbek, take the brat and teach her or roast her for dinner, whichever you like. Out of my yard with you! Get out! Who, I ask you? When we got there Duishen told us to sit on the floor strewn thickly with straw, and gave each of us a notebook, a pencil and a small board. Next, he pointed to the picture he had pinned to the wall. There was a Russian man on it.
I shall never forget that portrait. Lenin was wearing a rather baggy army jacket, his face looked pinched and he had a longish beard. His wounded arm was in a sling, his cap pushed back on his head, and there was a calm look, in his keen eyes. Duishen must have had that picture for some time. It was printed on cheap paper used for posters, and it had become frayed on the edges and folds. There was nothing else on the walls of the schoolroom, just this picture of Lenin. He showed each one of us how to hold a pencil and readily explained unfamiliar words to us.
Thinking of it now I honestly marvel at him: how courageous of that all but illiterate young fellow, who could hardly read and had no textbooks, not even an elementary reader, to attempt that truly great job! It was no simple thing trying to teach children whose fathers and forefathers had all been illiterate. Duishen was, of course, completely innocent of grammar and had no idea of method. Rather, he never even suspected that such things existed.
He taught us as well as he could, he taught us what he thought we should know, guided by his instinct alone. But the sincere enthusiasm with which he tackled the job was not wasted on us, of that I am sure. He accomplished more than he realized. Yes, he did, because in that school of his, in that old mud stable with gaping holes in the walls through which we could see the snow-clad mountaintops, we Kirghiz children, who had never left the confines of our village, suddenly glimpsed a new and wonderful world.
It was there we learnt that Moscow, the city where Lenin lived, was many, many times bigger than Aulie-Ata and even Tashkent, that there were very, very large seas in the world, the size of the Talass Valley, and that huge ships, as big as our mountains, sailed those seas.
We learnt that kerosene, which people brought from market, came from the depths of the earth. We came firmly to believe that when our people became a little better off our school would move into a big white building with large windows, and the pupils would have desks.
Listening to Duishen, we felt we were fighting side by side with him against the white guards. His description of Lenin was so stirring; he might have seen him with his own eyes. Much of what he told us, I now realize, were legends woven by the people about our great leader, but we never doubted the truth of it, just as we never doubted that milk was white. At the end of every month Duishen went to the regional center to report on his work.
He went on foot, and was usually away two or three days. We missed him terribly. Had he been my big brother I couldn't have missed him more. Whenever my aunt wasn't looking, I'd slip to the back of the house and peer down the road.
How I longed to see him coming down that road, to see his smile that warmed the heart, and hear his words that brought enlightenment! I was the oldest of his pupils. Perhaps that was why I was the quickest to learn, though I don't think it was the only reason. Every word he spoke, every letter he taught me to write, were sacred for me. And there was nothing more important in life than grasping what he taught. I treasured the notebook he had given me, and I practiced my letters on the ground with the tip of the sickle, on the mud walls with a bit of charcoal, on the snow and in the dust with a twig.
For me there was no one in the whole world more learned and wise than Duishen. Winter was drawing close. Until the first snow we used to wade across the little stream that rushed noisily along its pebbly bed at the foot of the hill. Finally it became too much for us, the icy water stung our legs so. It was hardest on the smaller children, tears started to their eyes every time. Not just as a landmark but also as an icon.
Will I ever reach home? All I want is to go up that hill and stand under the trees for a long, long time, listening to the murmur of their leaves.
Each person has their own experiences. Somehow those two trees seem to touch many people. It may not be a tree but anything that connects to you. Then the story of the two people who planted the trees. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans , was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala ; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders.
The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal ; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire , under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers.
The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in , but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in and ; the Nepalese Civil War in the s and early s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in , ending the world's last Hindu monarchy.
The Constitution of Nepal , adopted in , establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces. Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in , friendship treaties were signed with India in and the People's Republic of China in Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation , of which it is a founding member.
Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage " Nemi ", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana , a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of " Nepal ".
According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and " Newari " are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details.
Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja. Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC.
The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas , peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries.
Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism , came to be known as Gautama Buddha. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang , dating from about CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait ; the legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte , is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road.
Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, granted in Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system, it has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation , a member of the United Nations , the Commonwealth of Nations , the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement.
Along with the Maldives , Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index , with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations; the Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion.
Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution; the island is home to many cultures and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have played an influential role in the island's history. Moors , Malays and the indigenous Vedda are established groups on the island. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names.
According to the Mahavamsa , the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni , because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area.
The island was known under Chola rule as Mummudi Cholamandalam. As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in a plan to rename all those over which it has authority; the pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back , years and even as far back as , years. The era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages.
Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka , which dates back to 37, BP, Batadombalena and Belilena are the most important. In these caves, archaeologists have found the remains of anatomically modern humans which they have named Balangoda Man , other evidence suggesting that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept domestic dogs for driving game. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which provides details of a kingdom named Lanka, created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera , the Lord of Wealth, it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana , the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara.
The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravana's airport.