Project management achieving competitive advantage pdf

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    Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage Pdf

    Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage pdf download, Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage audiobook. Download PDF Project Management: Achieving Competitive Advantage (4th Edition), PDF Download Project Management: Achieving. Rights Reserved. Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Pinto, J. K. (). Project management: Achieving the Competitive Advantage (3rd ed.) .

    Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Cy98xa Iw9f Full file at https: A Formulating cross-functional decisions B Implementing cross-functional decisions C Evaluating cross-functional decisions D Eliminating cross-functional decisions Answer: D Diff: Understand how effective project management contributed to achieving strategic objectives. Application of Knowledge 2 Which of the following is descriptive of a vision statement? A Diff: Application of Knowledge 3 One purpose of a mission statement is to: A Establish a sense of what the organization hopes to accomplish.

    A Requires all stakeholders to be identified and locked in as a first step. B Is used to identify only internal stakeholders.

    C Is used to identify only external stakeholders. D Is a recurring cycle that allows new stakeholders to be considered at any time. Application of Knowledge 30 Suppliers and competitors are possible intervenor groups in a project. Application of Knowledge 31 An important step in stakeholder management is the assessment of your own capabilities.

    Application of Knowledge 32 Consider your current major and the courses that comprise it. From the perspective of your university, and more specifically, from the department that "owns" this major, identify the stakeholders of this major. List the stakeholders in two categories, internal and external and assess the environment and the goals of each of these stakeholders. Examples will vary, but internal stakeholders might include the students pursuing this major, the faculty in the department and any service department teaching the constituent courses, and other university faculty or staff, e.

    External stakeholders could include graduates, area employers, the community, and the state legislature for public institutions. Goals for internal stakeholders might be to grow the program, place students in well-compensated and high-profile jobs, score well on nationally normed certification tests, secure research funding and consultancies, and retain and graduate a high percentage of matriculants.

    Block's six steps as applied to stakeholder management include: Assessing the environment calls for an investigation into the project's impact — will it be very high profile or low key?

    Identification of the principal actors' goals is a first step in defusing negative reaction. The project team should also look for hidden agendas in goal assessment. Assessment of your own capabilities means taking inventory of the organization and identifying strengths and weaknesses.

    Solution development means creating an action plan to address the needs of the stakeholder groups and doing political homework. Testing and refining the solution requires acknowledging that the project manager and team are operating under imperfect information. The Cleland Project Stakeholder Management Cycle below stresses that all stakeholder management functions are interlocked and repetitive.

    As time and the project progress, and as investigation work is done, new stakeholders are discovered and must, in turn, be managed. As the environment changes, the project team must cycle through the model again to verify that existing strategies are effective. Application of Knowledge 35 What are the elements of organizational structure? Organizational structure consists of three key elements. It designates formal reporting relationships, including the number of levels in the hierarchy and the span of control of managers and supervisors.

    Organizational structure identifies the grouping together of individuals into departments and departments into the total organization. Organizational structure includes the design of systems to ensure effective communication, coordination, and integration of effort across departments. The most common reasons for creating a department are by function, product, geography, and project. Functional structures group people performing similar activities into departments.

    Product structures cluster together all employees responsible for a single product line or family of products. Geography ignores product and function and groups people by geographical region or physical location.

    Project grouping puts people involved in the same project in the same department. A Well-articulated mission, vision, and value statements B Formal reporting relationships C Grouping together of individuals into departments D Systems designed to ensure effective communication Answer: Recognize the strengths and weaknesses of three basic forms of organizational structure and their implications for managing projects.

    Application of Knowledge 38 The assistant to the manager did not report to the assistant manager, only to the manager. This reporting relationship was clearly delineated in the: A Company culture. B Organizational structure. C Stakeholder analysis. D Company mission statement. A Organizations. B Companies. C Silos. D Departments. A Seniority. B Function. C Product. D Geography. Application of Knowledge 41 Span of control refers to: A The number of departments involved in a project.

    B The number of days that the project manager is allowed to complete the project. C The number of employees one person supervises. D The number of levels from top to bottom in an organization. The dean has obviously decided to group employees by: A Function. B Geography. C Project. D Product. Application of Knowledge 43 One thing that organizational structure must include is: A The design of systems for effective communication.

    B The standards of performance for all employees. C The expected outcomes for all projects in the company portfolio. D The mission and vision statements. A The overall structure of the organization specifies how project team members should communicate with the project manager. B The internal project team structure specifies the arrangement of all units or interest groups participating in the development of the project. C Two distinct organizational structures operate simultaneously within the project management context: D All of these statements are correct.

    A Project. B Functional.

    C Matrix. D Organic. Application of Knowledge 46 Companies that are structured by grouping people performing similar activities into departments are: A Project organizations.

    B Functional organizations. C Matrix organizations. D Departmental organizations. Application of Knowledge 47 A major player in the software industry stumbles from one new edition of its operating system and office automation package to another.

    As soon as one package is released, the programmers and developers have two weeks to latch onto a different team that is updating a different package. Failure to find another team to work for means an end to their employment.

    This organizational structure is BEST classified as a: A Functional organization. B Matrix organization C Project organization. D Flexible organization. His annual evaluation features input from his line manager and each of the project managers, all of whom have equal say in how his hour work day is partitioned.

    John Drone is employed by a: B Project organization. C Cross-functional organization. D Matrix organization. Application of Knowledge 49 A functional organization structure is a weakness for project management because: A In-depth knowledge and intellectual capital development are enabled. B No disruption or changes to a firm's design are necessitated by projects developed within this structure.

    C Priorities among functional departments may be different and competing. D Standard career paths are enabled so team members only perform their duties as needed. Application of Knowledge 50 The tendency of employees in a functionally organized company to become fixated on their own concerns and work assignments to the exclusion of the needs of other departments is known as: A Layering.

    B Myopia. C Nepotism. D Siloing. A There are low levels of external uncertainty. B There is high instability in the environment. C Project coordination is assigned to the lowest levels in an organization. D There must be rapid response to external opportunities and threats. Application of Knowledge 52 In general, the poorest organizational structure when it comes to managing projects is probably the: A Matrix structure.

    B Functional structure. C Project structure. D Process structure. Application of Knowledge 53 All major decisions and authority are under the control of the project manager in a: A Creates legions of project management experts.

    B Maintains a pooled supply of intellectual capital. C Assuages the fear of unemployment by project team members once the project has ended. D Fosters loyalty to the overall organization by project team members. Application of Knowledge 55 Staffing fluctuations associated with project completion and initiation are most likely to occur in organizations that are: A Functionally structured.

    B Project structured. C Matrix structured. D Process structured. Application of Knowledge 56 A dual hierarchy is the salient feature of a: A Project structure. B Matrix structure. C Functional structure. D Bi-modal structure. A Strong matrix. B Weak matrix. C Dual matrix. D Primal matrix.

    Application of Knowledge 58 The manager of the Super Burrito Project is in the midst of an important project team meeting but Fred Fromage, the representative from the Cheese department, is nowhere to be found. After a brief investigation it is determined that Fred's manager in the Cheese department has other plans for Fred's time and efforts over the next several days and he simply won't be available for Super Burrito Project work.

    The organizational structure being used here is unquestionably a: C Project organization. D Chevre organization. Application of Knowledge 59 A major weakness of a matrix organizational structure for project management occurs when: A The environment is dynamic. B Resources are scarce and shared between functional responsibilities and the competing project. C The number of human resource coordination meetings is considered.

    D One considers the dual importance of project management and functional efficiency. A Dual hierarchies mean two bosses. B A significant amount of time is spent negotiating the sharing of critical resources. C Workers must reconcile competing project and functional demands. D Project importance is enhanced by setting authority equal to that of functional departments. Application of Knowledge 61 Policies and procedures are examples of an organization's external environment.

    Application of Knowledge 62 A project organization does not have functional departments. Application of Knowledge 63 What are the three types of organizations presented by the author and how are they different? The three organizational structures presented by the author are the functional organization, the project organization, and the matrix organization.

    The functional structure is probably the most common organization and consists of grouping people by business activity or duties in the organization. A project organization is set up with their exclusive focus aimed at running projects. Resources are assigned to the project for as long as the project needs them. A matrix organization is a combination of functional and project alternatives and seeks a balance between these two extremes.

    The matrix structure creates a dual hierarchy where there is a balance of authority between project emphasis and functional departmentalization. A functional structure groups people and departments performing similar activities into units.

    Division of labor in the functional structure is not based on the type of product or project supported, but rather according to the type of work performed. In an organization having a functional structure, members routinely work on multiple projects or support multiple product lines simultaneously.

    The most common weakness in a functional structure is the tendency for employees organized this way to become fixated on their concerns and work assignments to the exclusion of the needs of other departments called functional siloing.

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    An additional weakness of the functional structure is it provides no logical location for a central project management function and that projects operating in this environment must be layered on top of the duties of functional groups. Finally, there is a tendency to sub-optimize efforts on a project that is not tightly bound to a group. A department that is not directly affected by a project may put forth only the minimum effort.

    Application of Knowledge 65 Describe the two forms of a matrix organization and indicate the advantages of each for project management. A matrix organization may be further classified as being a weak matrix sometimes called functional matrix and a strong matrix sometimes referred to as a project matrix. A weak matrix has a great deal of functional organization character; the manager still controls resources and manages project components.

    The strong matrix cedes much of this control over to the project manager. If the functional and project managers differ in skills, then the form having the superior manager would be ideal.

    The strong matrix is the closest that a matrix environment can come to be a true project organization. If the competitive environment is such that a project organization form is ideal, then the strong matrix is superior to the weak matrix. What are the advantages of using this structure?

    A project structure is set up such that the exclusive focus is on running projects. Each project is a self-contained business unit with a dedicated project team.

    The project manager is the leader of the project and the staff all report to the leader. The staffing decisions and duration of the employees' tenure with the project are left to the discretion of the project manager, who is the chief point of authority for the project. The four advantages of this structure as presented in the text are: Application of Knowledge 67 The belief that organizations can sometimes gain tremendous benefit from creating a fully dedicated project organization is captured by the term: A Heavyweight project organization.

    B Matrix organization. C Benevolent society.

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    D Leveraged benefits. Understand how companies can change their structure into a "heavyweight project organization" structure to facilitate effective project management practices. Application of Knowledge 68 The Larson and Gobeli study that compared projects that had been managed in a variety of structural types revealed that new product development projects tended to be most effectively executed when the organizational structure was a: A Project matrix.

    C Balanced matrix. D Functional matrix. A Project organization. B Balanced matrix. C Project matrix. Application of Knowledge 70 The Larson and Gobeli study that compared projects that had been managed in a variety of structural types revealed that both new product development and construction projects tended to be least effectively executed when the organizational structure was a: D Functional organization.

    Application of Knowledge 71 A project management office is designed to oversee or improve the management of projects without stripping responsibility from the project manager. Application of Knowledge 73 The resource pool model of the project management office PMO provides skilled labor to an organization's projects. Application of Knowledge 75 Consider your weekly routine and how it might be managed as a pure project structure. What changes would be required for you to convert from a process mentality to a project mentality?

    As such, the student's degree plan could be considered to be a college degree project, the student's employment could be considered a company president or VP project, and any children they might have could be considered their retirement plan. Given my current failure-to-launch progeny, perhaps the last example is a stretch. The idea would be to take a long-term view of end goals and see the day to day as constituent activities of each.

    The student is the project manager and to a great extent, the project team, operating autonomously perhaps for the more personal degree and child-rearing projects and less so for the career ladder project. A Project management offices. B PERT units. C Tiger teams. D Central clearinghouses. Identify the characteristics of three forms of project management office PMO. A As a resource center. B To act as a central repository for project documentation.

    C To replace the project manager as being responsible for the project. D As the place where project management improvements are identified and then disseminated to the rest of the organization. C The expected outcomes for all projects in the company portfolio. D The mission and vision statements. Answer: A Diff: 3 Section: 2. A The overall structure of the organization specifies how project team members should communicate with the project manager.

    B The internal project team structure specifies the arrangement of all units or interest groups participating in the development of the project. C Two distinct organizational structures operate simultaneously within the project management context: the organizational structure and the project team structure.

    D All of these statements are correct. B Functional. C Matrix. D Organic. B Functional organizations. C Matrix organizations. D Departmental organizations. Classification: Concept AACSB: Application of Knowledge 47 A major player in the software industry stumbles from one new edition of its operating system and office automation package to another.

    As soon as one package is released, the programmers and developers have two weeks to latch onto a different team that is updating a different package.

    Failure to find another team to work for means an end to their employment. B Matrix organization C Project organization.

    D Flexible organization. Answer: C Diff: 1 Section: 2. His annual evaluation features input from his line manager and each of the project managers, all of whom have equal say in how his hour work day is partitioned.

    John Drone is employed by a: A Functional organization. B Project organization. C Cross-functional organization. D Matrix organization. Classification: Concept AACSB: Application of Knowledge 49 A functional organization structure is a weakness for project management because: A In-depth knowledge and intellectual capital development are enabled. B No disruption or changes to a firm's design are necessitated by projects developed within this structure. C Priorities among functional departments may be different and competing.

    D Standard career paths are enabled so team members only perform their duties as needed. Classification: Concept AACSB: Application of Knowledge 50 The tendency of employees in a functionally organized company to become fixated on their own concerns and work assignments to the exclusion of the needs of other departments is known as: A Layering.

    B Myopia. C Nepotism. D Siloing. B There is high instability in the environment. C Project coordination is assigned to the lowest levels in an organization.

    D There must be rapid response to external opportunities and threats. B Functional structure. C Project structure. D Process structure.

    B Maintains a pooled supply of intellectual capital. C Assuages the fear of unemployment by project team members once the project has ended. D Fosters loyalty to the overall organization by project team members.

    Classification: Concept AACSB: Application of Knowledge 55 Staffing fluctuations associated with project completion and initiation are most likely to occur in organizations that are: A Functionally structured. B Project structured.

    C Matrix structured. D Process structured. Answer: B Diff: 3 Section: 2. B Matrix structure. C Functional structure. D Bi-modal structure. B Weak matrix. C Dual matrix. D Primal matrix. After a brief investigation it is determined that Fred's manager in the Cheese department has other plans for Fred's time and efforts over the next several days and he simply won't be available for Super Burrito Project work.

    The organizational structure being used here is unquestionably a: A Strong matrix. C Project organization. D Chevre organization. B Resources are scarce and shared between functional responsibilities and the competing project.

    C The number of human resource coordination meetings is considered. D One considers the dual importance of project management and functional efficiency.

    B A significant amount of time is spent negotiating the sharing of critical resources. C Workers must reconcile competing project and functional demands. D Project importance is enhanced by setting authority equal to that of functional departments. Answer: The three organizational structures presented by the author are the functional organization, the project organization, and the matrix organization.

    The functional structure is probably the most common organization and consists of grouping people by business activity or duties in the organization. A project organization is set up with their exclusive focus aimed at running projects. Resources are assigned to the project for as long as the project needs them. A matrix organization is a combination of functional and project alternatives and seeks a balance between these two extremes. The matrix structure creates a dual hierarchy where there is a balance of authority between project emphasis and functional departmentalization.

    Answer: A functional structure groups people and departments performing similar activities into units. Division of labor in the functional structure is not based on the type of product or project supported, but rather according to the type of work performed. In an organization having a functional structure, members routinely work on multiple projects or support multiple product lines simultaneously.

    The most common weakness in a functional structure is the tendency for employees organized this way to become fixated on their concerns and work assignments to the exclusion of the needs of other departments called functional siloing.

    An additional weakness of the functional structure is it provides no logical location for a central project management function and that projects operating in this environment must be layered on top of the duties of functional groups.

    Finally, there is a tendency to sub-optimize efforts on a project that is not tightly bound to a group. A department that is not directly affected by a project may put forth only the minimum effort.

    Classification: Application AACSB: Application of Knowledge 65 Describe the two forms of a matrix organization and indicate the advantages of each for project management. Answer: A matrix organization may be further classified as being a weak matrix sometimes called functional matrix and a strong matrix sometimes referred to as a project matrix.

    A weak matrix has a great deal of functional organization character; the manager still controls resources and manages project components. The strong matrix cedes much of this control over to the project manager. If the functional and project managers differ in skills, then the form having the superior manager would be ideal. The strong matrix is the closest that a matrix environment can come to be a true project organization. If the competitive environment is such that a project organization form is ideal, then the strong matrix is superior to the weak matrix.

    What are the advantages of using this structure? Answer: A project structure is set up such that the exclusive focus is on running projects. Each project is a self-contained business unit with a dedicated project team. The project manager is the leader of the project and the staff all report to the leader.

    The staffing decisions and duration of the employees' tenure with the project are left to the discretion of the project manager, who is the chief point of authority for the project. The four advantages of this structure as presented in the text are: the project manager is the authority and in control of the project; improved communication among project team members; there is a ready supply of trained project management professionals; and increased flexibility and rapid response to environmental opportunities.

    Classification: Critical Thinking AACSB: Application of Knowledge 67 The belief that organizations can sometimes gain tremendous benefit from creating a fully dedicated project organization is captured by the term: A Heavyweight project organization. B Matrix organization. C Benevolent society. D Leveraged benefits. Classification: Application AACSB: Application of Knowledge 68 The Larson and Gobeli study that compared projects that had been managed in a variety of structural types revealed that new product development projects tended to be most effectively executed when the organizational structure was a: A Project matrix.

    C Balanced matrix. D Functional matrix. B Balanced matrix. C Project matrix. Answer: C Diff: 3 Section: 2. Classification: Application AACSB: Application of Knowledge 70 The Larson and Gobeli study that compared projects that had been managed in a variety of structural types revealed that both new product development and construction projects tended to be least effectively executed when the organizational structure was a: A Project matrix. D Functional organization. Classification: Application AACSB: Application of Knowledge 71 A project management office is designed to oversee or improve the management of projects without stripping responsibility from the project manager.

    What changes would be required for you to convert from a process mentality to a project mentality? As such, the student's degree plan could be considered to be a college degree project, the student's employment could be considered a company president or VP project, and any children they might have could be considered their retirement plan.

    Given my current failure-to-launch progeny, perhaps the last example is a stretch. The idea would be to take a long-term view of end goals and see the day to day as constituent activities of each. The student is the project manager and to a great extent, the project team, operating autonomously perhaps for the more personal degree and child-rearing projects and less so for the career ladder project.

    B PERT units. C Tiger teams. D Central clearinghouses. B To act as a central repository for project documentation. C To replace the project manager as being responsible for the project. D As the place where project management improvements are identified and then disseminated to the rest of the organization. B Establishing organizational structure. C Crafting a mission statement. D Resource allocation. D Day-to-day process improvement. B Resource pool model.

    C Weather station model. D Radar model. B Weather station model. C Control tower model. D Project model. B Cadre model. D Resource pool model. B Establishing standards for managing projects. C Enforcing the adherence to accepted protocols for project management.

    D Improving the current state of project management procedures. B It helps an organization develop project management skills. C It serves as a bottleneck for communication across the organization. D All project management skills are located at one point in an organization. Answer: A project management office PMO is a centralized unit within an organization or department that oversees or improves the management of projects.

    PMOs have been described as operating under one of three alternative forms and purposes within companies: 1 weather station, 2 control tower, and 3 resource pool. The major difference among the three forms is the level of involvement in the project management process. The weather station form is used only when the PMO is needed for tracking and monitoring project progress.

    The control tower model treats project management as a business skill to be protected and supported, focusing on developing methods for continually improving project management skills. The goal of the resource pool PMO is to maintain and provide a cadre of trained and skilled project professionals as they are needed. Classification: Critical Thinking AACSB: Reflective Thinking 86 The solution to external and internal problems that has worked consistently for a group and that is therefore taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think about, and feel in relation to these problems is known as: A Groupthink.

    B Socialization. C Organizational culture. D A frame of reference. A Rules of behavior are formally written down so they can be learned as quickly as possible. B Rules of behavior are common across the entire organization regardless of how large it is. C Rules of behavior, since they are informal, may be accepted or rejected by new employees in the organization. D The conversion process a company uses can influence its culture. If there was one thing you could be sure of, there was no grade inflation in his department, whose culture was formed primarily by: A Critical incident.

    B Reward system. C Rules and procedures.

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    D Environment. Classification: Concept AACSB: Application of Knowledge 89 The information systems department prides itself on being on the often bleeding edge of high-tech course offerings. They were the first department to create online classes and the first to battle all of the issues associated with these offerings.

    When Wally interviewed for the new assistant professor position, he knew that his subcutaneous chip was only a hiring decision away. Corporate culture in this department is probably most affected by: A The environment. B Technology.