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The painting on the left. By following this evolutionary tendency across the centuries. Lightning thus stands alongside other metaphors arrow.
The celestial warrior lost his cosmic attributes to become the best of The two paintings above. Zeus himself. Mysteries of the Cosmic Thunderbolt refer to the invincible "arrow" launched by Apollo. It became the sword, spear, hammer, or club of a hero who continued to battle chaos monsters, but no longer in the sky. The diminished hero typically reveals an enigmatic mix of god and man, as in the accounts of the Sumerian and Babylonian hero Gilgamesh, destroyer of the monster Huwawa.
Once reduced to human dimensions, the hero could no longer hold onto his original weapon, a weapon claimed to have altered the destiny of heaven and earth. Localization of the celestial drama had a huge impact on Greek imagination, as can be seen in virtually all Greek epic literature. But the more archaic themes, though subdued, are still present.
Achilles' father was the mythic king Peleus and his mother the "sea" goddess Thetis, daughter of Oceanus, for whose affections both Zeus and Poseidon had contended. His armor was fashioned by the god Hephaestus, the very god who fashioned the thunderbolts of Zeus. Neither this palace, nor anything uncovered by archaeologists in the region could have inspired the city of which the poets spoke!
But of the countless kings, warriors, princesses and seers in the Iliad, not. The reason for this is that the claimed events did not occur on earth. The original subject was a cosmic drama, whose episodes progressively masqueraded as terrestrial history. In the illustration on the left, from a Greek drinking vessel, Achilles confronts the serpent-guardian of a Trojan fountain.
Our question must be: The similarities shared by mythic heroes are vast, directing our attention to ancient themes that can only appear incomprehensible to the modern world. The poets spoke of Achilles' spear as forked, or possessing a "double tongue", as when Aeschylus, in his Nereids, writes, "The shaft, the shaft, with its double tongue, will come. But the image was not rooted in practicality. Once reduced to human dimensions, the hero could no longer hold onto his original weapon, a weapon claimed to have shaken and forever changed both heaven and earth.
How would later poets and historians, after localizing the stories, describe the cosmic weapon with which, in the more archaic tales, the warriorgod vanquished heaven-spanning serpents, dragons, and chaos monsters? Of course, mythologists will not normally think of the sword of Perseus right or the club of Heracles—much less the healing "staff" of Hermes—as symbols of the cosmic "thunderbolt. Yet only rarely could it be hidden entirely.
In most cases, the localized weapon still retained glimpses of the original: Nevertheless, what we usually see is just a shadow of the cosmic thunderbolt so vividly described in early Near Eastern narratives of primeval order and chaos.
In the Grail cycle of myths, lightning receives the name Lanceor, or "Golden Lance," an archaic name of Lancelot. Lightning is also linked to the sword Excalibur, which Geoffrey of Monmouth called Caliburn, from the Welsh Caledvwich, Irish Caladbolg, traceable to the archaic Celtic language of lightning. Its lightning stroke was always fatal. Perseus, the hero who slew the monstrous Medusa, was celebrated in later times as a constellation.
The scene here is from the masterful work painted on the ceiling fresco of the Villa Farnese in Caprarola, Italy. The diverse mythic forms of the thunderbolt, according to H.
From Hyginus, Poetica by the Hero. Less known is the much smaller constellation Sagitta, "the Arrow," close to the center of the Milky Way. Here the constellation symbol, according to Eratosthenes, harked back to "the arrow shot by Apollo against the Cyclops, who forged the lightning with which Zeus had cut off the life of his son Asclepius.
Von del Chamberlain. The Navaho say that. Thor was the "Hurler" Vingnir and his weapon was the thunderbolt. He was the strongest of men and of gods. Wielding a giant club.
In confronting the monster. The prototypical power of chaos and darkness in Egypt is the god Set. Ahi's Iranian counterpart. Chapter 3. The Hindus feared and hated Ahi. The ancient Egyptian god Horus stood in intimate relationship to his constant enemy Set. There is more to the paradox. Archaic Sumerian cylinder. Despite the overwhelming evidence that the different cultures were describing the same events. The Hindu Ravana was both a good king and a demon. Azhi Dahaka or Zohak.
The Good and Evil Warrior As cross-cultural investigation exposes the underlying patterns of world mythology and symbolism.
We see the same ambiguities in Hinduism. We meet the same paradox in New Zealand where Maui is the prototypical hero. In Tibetan traditions the god Indra is not a hero. But archaically. And yet. But in the Ramayana epic Ravana is the great demon brought down by the warrior Rama. The one turns out to be the alter ego of the other.
In Sumerian and Babylonian traditions. Welsh mellt. Serbo-Croatian munja. As noted by B Schmidt. Mysteries of the Cosmic Thunderbolt form.
Heracles wears a lion skin over his left arm while his right hand rests on a club. Also of interest here is the Hindu vajra. This is the very term which. It appears as the weapon of the Aztec Tlaloc.
Norse warrior god Thor. Russian molnija and Old Prussian mealde. Authorities who have examined the symbolism of the lightningaxe trace it back to Minoan civilization and farther still to Babylonian cosmology. Church Slavonic mluniji. As seen on the previous page. But the lightning-clubs of other heroes globally can hardly be ignored.
The LEFT: Thunderbolt in the hands of Ninurta. The evidence suggests that before the monumental civilizations arose. Idealization of a bipolar plasma discharge formation. Both the natural events and the commemorative symbols they inspired bear a direct relationship to the vast pictographic record carved on stone.
Even the Dinka of Sudan honored a great ancestor-god Deng. For our purpose here. The events that inspired the myth-making epoch. The illustration on page 30 shows the Sumerian Ninurta wielding the thunderbolt in his battle with the monster Anzu. Of course. We present alongside this image a three-dimensional representation of the corresponding discharge form suggested by the archaic symbol.
Of all the ancient cultures it seems that the Greeks preserved the most voluminous artistic renderings of the thunderbolt.
In Greek representations this corkscrew column persists through many variations of the thunderbolt. It is instructive. The Greek themes then fall into place. As the entwined currents in a linear discharge become more tightly bound they may appear as a single glowing column.
The examples above represent several common thunderbolt forms in Greek art. But it is the three dimensional nuances of the plasma discharge interpretation that enable us to see past the limitations of the ancient media and to envision the energetic patterns represented. In art and literature. Greek thunderbolt as leave no doubt that this axial column is the thunderbolt as sword. But the artists also employed frequent variations between the upward.
The illustrations above interpret the Greek thunderbolt images as plasma discharge. See discussion of bipolar symmetry in Chapter One. The idealized form of the discharge. Greek examples of the thunderbolts are dominated by patterns of bipolarity.
A hallmark of the Greek images is the role of symmetry. Along the axial column. A discharge column can produce multiple disks or toruses stacked along the column. In image C the disk in the discharge column has moved upward and its edges have folded upward as well. Where conditions foster bipolar symmetry. Mysteries of the Cosmic Thunderbolt sheets can attract each other at larger distances but repel at shorter distances. This later image of the Greek thunderbolt integrates key design elements from the more archaic designs.
In high energy discharge an entire stack of disks or toruses may be bent in either direction. The forms noted here graphically idealize the plasma discharge formations implied by the Greek images. Laboratory discharge. Image D illustrates the interaction of embedded cylindrical currents held in equilibrium attraction and repulsion parallel to the discharge axis.
The respective elements are entirely alien to those of a terrestrial lightning bolt. As the disk expands. Something different and dramatic is going on.
No mention is made of the far simpler plasma discharge pinch. In some discussions of late. According to Raghvendra Sahai. Turn them on their axes. This is the basis for the discharge interpretation of the Greek form 7. Yet in plasma laboratory experiments. In the cylindrical components. Analogs in Space It is not in the laboratory alone that we observe the unique features of plasma discharge discussed here.
The same formations can now be seen in space. Responding to the surprising details of the Hubble image. It shows a toroidal band of dusty plasma occluding the star at the center of a high energy discharge. Lars Christensen of the European Space Agency states: Illuminated by direct experimental evidence. It's amazing. A torus of this sort. Matter drawn from one of the stars. Some imagine a binary star system with two stars in extremely close proximity exchanging mass.
Seen in the constellation Norma. That is why there is relatively little radiation Bipolar formations of this type. Ant Nebula.
The nebula of Eta Carinae certainly belongs in that category. To explain 3 million degree temperatures and x-rays from gas more than a light-year from the central star.
If the nebula is a plasma heated by electric currents feeding into the star of Eta Carinae then. As long ago as Fred Seward of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics expressed great surprise at what he saw: Instead we see just the opposite—a bright cloud of diffuse emission. The myths and symbols of antiquity will have a central place in this reconsideration. Most of the electrical power focused on the hapless star is being intercepted by gas and dust in the nebula and radiated energetically into space.
Conclusion In this investigation. We can no longer view the history of human consciousness—or the history of our planet—through the lens of twentieth century cosmology. Mysteries of the Cosmic Thunderbolt from the star at the center. A higher resolution Hubble Telescope image of the Bug Nebula. In the Bug Nebula above. Though presented in the language of myth and symbol. The central star is hidden by a dark dust torus.
The light of the star is rich in ultraviolet. The Bug Nebula. The "thunderbolts of the gods" defy every effort to understand them as references to How do we uncover the forgotten events now hidden behind the symbols they inspired?
As discoveries in plasma science continue. Their forms are not the forms of regional lightning. This discovery. They spiral and whirl and entwine.
If this was the case. But a much different understanding of ancient accounts is possible. It then becomes clear that around the world many different hieroglyphs and symbols actually described identical celestial phenomena.
In their appearance. And the heat and blaze from both of them were on the dark-faced sea. In geologically recent times the planetary system was unstable.
Velikovsky claimed that about years ago. The present order of the planets is new. Our interest is in fundamental concepts that distinguish his insights from the sweep of modern theory. A centerpiece of his reconstruction was the planet Venus. Erratic movements of the planets led to global catastrophe on the Earth. Venus appeared in the sky as a spectacular comet. Velikovsky saw in ancient literature a story of planetary disturbance.
Less well known is his claim that ancient planetary catastrophes involved bolts of "lightning" or electrical arcing between planets in close approach.
He also argued that several centuries after this disaster. An Unstable Solar System No one investigating the themes of myth and catastrophe can afford to overlook the pioneering work of Immanuel Velikovsky. To most scientists the idea of a planet as a comet. The most profound implication of that challenge is an insight that is crucial to understanding space age discoveries.
All of them were predicted long before proof that they were correct came to hand. He predicted that the planet Jupiter would emit radio signals. He also formulated a series of predictions consistent with his hypothesis. In Worlds in Collision he wrote: I became skeptical of the great theories concerning the celestial motions that were formulated when the historical facts described here were not known to science. Fundamental principles in celestial mechanics.. The accepted celestial mechanics.
But his place among the great pioneers of science will be secure if he was correct on the underlying tenets noted above. He used the insights of a psychoanalyst and the methods of a historian to investigate the traditions of diverse cultures. In support of his reconstruction Velikovsky found physical evidence from geology.
He discerned deeply rooted themes that others had failed to see—descriptions of traumatic events occurring on a global scale. Velikovsky brought impressive scholarly credentials to his inquiry.
For this challenge to customary beliefs Velikovsky was ridiculed and reviled. Through rigorous cross-cultural comparison of the ancient traditions. Yet one advantage offered by the interdisciplinary hypothesis we offer in these monographs is its testability. The authors desire to honor Velikovsky here because. To question modern notions of solar system stability is to raise possibilities that presently have no place in space exploration. Electrical Encounters in Space ence the planets in their orbits or the comets in theirs.
An orrery. Prior to the collapse of this primeval order. One of these beliefs is that. Communication in such a case can easily break down. In the Newtonian celestial mechanics. In numerous instances. When the Planets were Gods Certain beliefs that can only appear outrageous today pervaded the ancient cultures. We have. The model symbolizes the stable and predictable movements of the planets—a sharp contrast to the insistence of ancient cultures that the heavens were altered catastrophically.
For Greek poets and philosophers it was the Golden Age of Kronos who. Ancient tribes and nations had reason to fear many natural phenomena.
The historian Diodorus Sicu- For anyone investigating the roots of ancient themes. The story of Adam and Eve in paradise. Always this lost epoch begins with paradise. Most had good reason to fear their own neighbors as well. More than anything else on earth or in the sky. Vital clues appear in the early astronomical traditions. Though we have much crucial ground to cover before taking up these traditions.
When like Ishkur you roar at the earth. One would think that many other forces in nature would have commanded far greater attention than remote planets.
They venerated and feared the planets as the gods. Sumerian and Babylonian astronomy. The goddess herself. But is it possible that the uneventful solar system to which we are so accustomed is deceiving us? It is known that early Greek philosophers such as Heraclitus.
Two of the most common expressions of the notion were ekpyrosis the combustion of the world. Such concepts of universal destruction dominated the thought of Zeno. Electrical Encounters in Space lus states the matter explicitly in his report of Chaldaean beliefs: Sumerian astronomer priests invoked the goddess Inanna.
Other examples are given in sidebars to this chapter. Carl Bezold and Wilhelm Gundel. The great philosophers had begun to reinterpret the more ancient traditions. The Greek historian Diodorus. Such traditions can illuminate the ancient notion. Electrical Encounters in Space in the regular movements of the celestial bodies could actually account for the earlier themes. Thunderbolts Launched by Planets With the birth of ancient astronomy.
As we intend to show. In truth. The archaic astronomical tradition is stated in no uncertain terms by classical writers. Attempts to interpret earlier catastrophic testimony through the lens of present observation lead only to a distortion of evidence and a denial of fact.
According to Taoist teachings the world falls into chaos when planets change their courses. Pliny said— is the origin of the myth that thunderbolts are the javelins hurled by Jupiter. How can the consistent memories of universal destruction be reconciled with the stable solar system of modern observation?
The answer is that the two cannot be reconciled. Greek philosophy offers a telling example of the dilemma still facing investigators today. In particular. He was venerated ple.
Worlds in Collision. See sidebar. Ares was both foolish The North American and lawless. Babylonian Nergal. His body was who assisted warriors in battle. Another aborigidark aspect.
That the great hero of epic literature echoes This warrior identity of Mars remains one the myth of the warrior-god can be seen in the of the great anomalies of ancient astronomy. Upon In Homer. Mars was god of unpredictable planet. For the Persians. Was the Warrior-Hero a Planet? Electrical Encounters in Space And this is accompanied by a very great disturbance of the air … because it is disturbed by the birth-pangs so to speak of the planet in travail.
If Saturn. Seneca has earned a degree of respect from orthodox science today. Prior to that time. And thus. He cites the assertions of earlier philosophers that. Roman god Jupiter And he reports the general tradition linking the planets Saturn and Mars to the occurrence of lightning. Pliny's contemporary. Velikovsky also noticed the relationship of the sword of Mars to a comet-like apparition.
As we noted in our summary of thunderbolt motifs. Velikovsky compiled his work prior to major discoveries of plasma behavior in space. All such weapons reveal similar qualities as the essence of the god.
Therefore it is not surprising that the sword. According to Ammianus Marcellinus. See page The mythical images imply that the planet Mars. The Scythian cult of Ares. Through cross-cultural comparison. He wrote: See Roscher. It is also known that the oldest Latin image of Mars was a spear. Apollo was both the servant and the celestial weapon of Zeus. According to W. Electrical Encounters in Space The Thunderbolt and the Comet The evolution and transformation of mythic symbolism over time provides a host of clues about the original patterns of human memory.
Every recurring feature of the mythic tradition is an enigma. All sacred symbols shared a common function. Symbols alone do not explain themselves.
Symbols were not things in themselves. Of this principle. Each requires the researcher to see beyond familiar explanations. When the distinction between archetype and symbol is honored.
One of the most common errors in historical investigation is the tendency to confuse the symbol with the archetype. Nineteenth century vision of a world-destroying comet. Lightning familiar to us today is but a reminder. Taken in isolation. The regional phenomena can only hint at the qualities of the archetype electricity.
The head of the comet. And yet the archaic tradition does not allow us to distinguish the one from the other. In nature as we experience it today. Aristotle Comet Cheseaux of The traditions coincide precisely with those of the thunderbolt.
The ideas arose from extraordinary natural events that are not occurring now. The fact that both the thunderbolt and the comet appear as the sword of a great warrior is an additional pointer to the original unity of the traditions. The Heavens. Many indications of this unity are given by the Pre-Socratic theories of the Greek philosophers. In terms of the evolution of mythic ideas. Gerard de Silteo. It belongs. Roger Bacon.
The earlier assertions of Chaldean and Babylonian astronomy directly contradicted planetary observation in Greek and Roman times. Electrical Encounters in Space and Diogenes Laertius recorded the theories of Democritus and Anaxagoras in these terms: This happens not only when planet touches planet. Some of the ancient scholars favour this explanation: But once we have reconstructed the tradition. At the heart of the story. In both the Americas and the Near East. The Greek Aphrodite Comaetho.
Thus Robert Schilling. According to Velikovsky. In a global tradition. Nothing in naked eye observations of the planet would seem to support its ancient identity as an unpredictable power. The same planet.
In ancient times Venus was the prototypical comet. Native cultures. Though the theories are of great interest. The Peruvian Chaska or Venus. Similar titles of Venus occur elsewhere in both the Old World and the New. Velikovsky observed. That planet. Among the most persuasive sources are two books by astronomers Victor Clube and William Napier. In Worlds in Collision. Velikovsky noted many tales of disaster in which the agent of destruction possessed comet-like attributes.
In recent years. The ancient idea appears to have affected all of the major cultures. It then becomes a key to discovery. Aztec illustration of a comet emergbolts. All told. An extensive library of source material. Velikovsky had noticed that identical images and stories were attached to comets and to Venus—not just in one land. But if the classical authors had too little information to hear the ancient witnesses correctly.
Though Velikovsky was certainly incorrect on many details. Electrical Encounters in Space ines. But these very words and images were also attached to Venus from China to the Americas. In particular we stand with Velikovsky on one of his most revolutionary An answer comes from the Chinese astronomers of the T'ang dynasty. Immanuel Velikovsky claimed that the planet Venus. The comet was a hair-star. Venus is the only one that ancient cultures everywhere celebrated as the mother of gods and heroes.
In a catastrophe that nearly destroyed the world. The Sumerians revered Venus as the goddess Inanna. The Egyptian Uraeus-serpent right captures all of the nuances of the female serpent or dragon. In her terrible aspect. In the hieroglyphic language the Uraeus meant nothing else than the mother goddess.
In both Mesopotamia and Arabia. Alter egos of the terrible goddess occur amongst all of the great cultures. Ancient chroniclers. The Canaanite Anat. Or she became a howling serpent or dragon global symbol of the comet par excellence. The goddess of love and life. In this role. Once planets achieve predictable orbits. The size of the body is not an inhibitor at all. Changes in the galactic currents powering the system can alter both stellar behavior and planetary behavior suddenly and catastrophically.
Electrical Encounters in Space claims: The planets have not always moved on the stable courses we observe today. A chaotic system will then move toward stable electrical and gravitational equilibrium. But as the system dissipates electrical energy. We cannot assume a closed and isolated system.
Nobel Laureate cal orbits.
Electrical models of solar system genesis suggest an evolutionary history of the planets bearing little resemblance to textbook descriptions. Proponents of the electric universe offer an entirely different explanation: We now observe "comet-tails" on a stellar scale in deep space. But space probes discovered not only that planets had magnetospheres but also that the magnetospheres were swept back into the solar wind as magnetotails.
In the birth of stellar and planetary systems. Escape velocity from planet-sized masses would not allow gases or other material to be released into an external tail. If stars are formed by electrical discharge and remain the focus of discharge. Many questions concerning the stability of planetary motions in the past can only be resolved through observational evidence.
How stable was the solar system in the past? Fifty years ago astronomers considered it outrageous for anyone to suggest that a planet could generate a "comet" tail.
It will discharge electrically. The larger the body the more likely it is to have a "tail. To give perspective to the hypothesis offered here.
To avoid confusion. To ask the question is to confront one of the great surprises of the space age—the ravaged surfaces of solid planets and moons. A great abundance of evidence makes clear that our earth was not immune from the ravages of planetary instability and its electrical effects. Based on experimental and historical evidence. They had not yet tacular auroral displays would occur in the early phases of an devised calendars. In this description we envision the planet Mars as the visitor.
But from the new vantage point. Spechad not yet instituted kingships and priesthoods. Under the conditions hypothesized by electrical models. These ancient peoples had not yet cles from the Sun interact with the thought of building monuments or of constructing great cities. A Meeting of Planets How might earthbound witnesses have experienced such events if they occurred in ancient times.
Issues arising from the larger reconstruction will be treated in later monographs. They Earth's upper atmosphere. A Doomsday Scenario Our story takes place in geologically recent times. Lightning storms grow in number and ferocity and move to higher latitudes. The night skies are eerily lit. Though we see no visible connection between the two planets. Animals grow more alert and excitable. Mars begins to eject material into its plasma sheath. As a more positively charged planetary intruder approaches the Earth.
Across much of the Earth strange and stormy weather erupts. A planet might produce a similar ring of comet-like streamers as electrical stresses on the body rise to a proportionate level. There were no cosmic myths. Ionization of the air induces mental oppression. As the electrical stresses increase. As our story begins Earth and Mars move toward a close encounter.
Induced electric currents disturb the upper atmosphere. In this "dark current" phase. Without understanding the cause.
Electrical Encounters in Space the rise of a warrior class. Planetary nebula NGC When Ares. Did a hemispheric scar on Mars. The removal of immense volumes of Martian surface remains one of the great mysteries of Mars.
Valles Marineris. Of such hypothesized events. In view of the cross-cultural links of the warrior archetype to the planet Mars. One of the most remarkable geological features in the solar system is the gigantic Valles Marineris on Mars. The image above. If so. The planet Mars with its great chasm.
The Aztec Xipe. Hindu myths speak of the deep scar on the head of the warrior Indra. A Themis image of Valles Marineris shows many telltale signs of electric discharge. On the other side of the world.
Greek mythology described various heroes and rogues one and the same archetype struck down by the lightning-weapon. In the early 's. When the torus becomes unstable. Electron streamers from Earth reach Mars and form an incandescent torus or donut-like plasma band around the planet. Then positively charged particles along with surface debris. Electrical discharges of this sort would be likely if a positively charged planet approached a more negatively charged body. In this analogy.
To persons standing in the open air. On elevated plateaus of Earth. Fires erupt spontaneously. Along the trenches. Around the globe. At the focal points of the electrical connection. An impression of the electrical effect of planets in close approach may be gleaned from this photograph of the onset of a discharge between two spheres.
The arcs have bridged the vacuum gap between the two planets. The interplanetary arc takes the form of entwined "ropes" erupting from the Martian south pole and extending toward the Earth's north pole. All these phenomena are a result of electrical charge redistribution on Earth. Water and surface material surge from Earth toward the approaching planet.
These electrical vortices are the extensions of a hemispheric. At the outskirts of this electrical hurricane. An Arctic vortex engulfs the polar landscape.
Land and ocean merge into a maelstrom around the polar axis. Seen from the lower latitudes. Asia and North America. The Arctic Ocean becomes a whirlpool beneath a rotating column of atmosphere and debris reaching into space. Seen from Earth.
This is the return stroke of the cosmic thunderbolt. To earthbound witnesses that survive. Tidal waves overrun the continents and sweep material southward. Where the exchange is most intense. We must be mindful of all assumptions.
Investigation across the disciplinary boundaries demands a continual reexamination of theoretical starting points. Science at its best expands this sense of the possible. Here we see stacked toroid shapes. From the higher vantage point you can see the lower. But what changes in current perception would be required for us to see evidence as evidence? From the higher viewpoint the old limitations become apparent. But often the greatest obstacle to discovery is the inertia of prior belief.
Even the violent storms of today sometimes exhibit the characteristics of electrical interactions. If such events occurred. Witnesses to Catastrophe The chroniclers of old were not physicists.
Electrical Encounters in Space sky-darkening cloud of debris encircles Mars and stretches toward the Earth. Dust falls. While we shall give little or no weight to isolated testimony. Albert Einstein used the metaphor of climbing a mountain and gaining ever-wider vistas. Examples abound. A Question of Cosmic History The events described in the above scenario pose questions and concerns broader than any specialized inquiry. A continuous roll of thunder reverberates around the Earth.
The chaos armies of the Hindu warrior Indra. In the hypothesis offered here. In a number of instances more than a dozen. Considering the archetypal link of the warriorgod to the planet Mars. You hurl the stone in fury…. Both the original myths and the derivative superstitions can be traced to an epoch of planetary upheaval. Cochrane notes that the Babylonians. Some portion of the material would inevitably fall on earth.
A Viking lander photograph of the Martian surface shows a landscape littered with sharpedged rocky debris. Cochrane concludes that. But if electrical discharge removed Martian surface material miles deep. Thus a shower of stones was said to have occurred in the attack of Typhon. In Tibetan traditions the thunderbolt takes the form of the dorje. Electric discharge excavated great quantities of material from planetary surfaces.
By what reasoning did this improbable but worldwide association of lightning and falling stone occur? Certainly nothing experienced in modern times could have provoked the theme. In recent decades no one has devoted more attention to tracing ancient images of the planet Mars than Ev Cochrane author Martian Metamorphoses.
Electrical Encounters in Space cultures. Storytellers recalled events of celestial splendor and terror. And beneath the pandemic surface confusion. Yet the pictures reveal global similarities. This is the message extracted from systematic cross-cultural investigation.
But the interpretations of scholarly researchers In ritual reenactments from culture to culture. In these pages we dispute the modern appraisal of world mythology. Planets brought world upheaval. Meticulous observers of the sky preserved vital links between their mythic gods and the planets of a recently organized solar system. But modern scholars are unaware of. They presume that the forces of nature were the same in ancient times as today. When catastrophe arrives.
Or it may mean that both the changes in decay rate and the solar activity have a common cause in galactic-scale electric currents. If catastrophic changes to the solar system have occurred, then radio decay constants have changed.
If the plasma discharge phenomena we call the thunderbolts of the gods actually flew between Earth and other planets, this too would have changed the radio decay constant as well as the abundances of radioisotopes. In any case, the whole question of absolute dating must be re-evaluated from an electric universe point of The Scarring of Venus [Thunderbolts Website] To visualize the effects, one must scale up plasma laboratory discharge to planetary dimensions.
For someone standing on one of the planets, the approaching body would take on the appearance of a planet-sized storm cloud in the sky.
The "thunderbolts of the gods" forged in the encounter would make even the most powerful lightning today seem as little more than a spark from a hairbrush. There is evidence that, down to a late period, the priests of the Chaldean Mysteries knew the composition of the Lohb, "flame.
Nimrod was the head of the fire-worshippers. Vulcan was the forger of the thunderbolts by which such havoc was made among the enemies of the gods. Ninus, or Nimrod, in his wars with the king of Bactria, seems to have carried on the conflict in a similar way. From Arnobius we learn, that when the Assyrians under Yardangs or Scavenger Currents? That these grooves owe their origin to electrical machining, not to wind, is indicated by the transverse ridges evenly spaced across the channels.
Deification of the Planets [Velikovsky Archive Website] How cruel are the planets that stay there and conspire evil in their rage Jupiter of the Thunderbolt.?
Dialogues et fragments philosophiques Paris, , p. Macrobius [For ancient planetary worship among the Babylonians, see Bartel L. II Leyden, ,