Selenium WebDriver is a global leader in automated web testing. This guide will provide you with all the skills you need to successfully create a functional Selenium test suite. Starting from the very beginning of the Selenium IDE, this book will show you how to transition into a. Sitemap. [PDF] Download Selenium Design Patterns and Best Practices By - Dima Kovalenko *Full Books*. Selenium Design Patterns and Best. Selenium Design Patterns and Best Practices - Selection from Selenium Design Patterns and Best Practices [Book].
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Selenium Design Patterns and Best Practices by Dima Kovalenko. Read online, or download in secure PDF or secure EPUB format. Book Details. Book Name. Selenium Design. Patterns and Best. Practices. Edition. 1st Edition. Category. Programming & IT. Type. [PDF|EPBU|AZW3|MOBI. ]. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Dima Kovalenko. Dima Kovalenko started his career in as a quality assurance intern during his summer internship at.
Through test automation , it is possible to lower the cost of bug fixing and bring overall improvement to the software quality assurance QA process. With proper tests, developers get a chance at finding and resolving bugs even before it gets to QA.
Test automation further helps us to automate test cases and features that are constantly regressing. This way QAs have more time in testing other parts of the application. Moreover, this helps in ensuring quality of the product in production releases.
As a result, we get products that are effectively more stable, and a QA process that is more efficient. Selenium simplifies test automation for web applications Tweet Although writing automated tests may seem like an easy task for developers and engineers, there is still the possibility of ending up with poorly implemented tests, and the high cost of code maintenance in any agile process.
Trying to constantly deliver changes or features in any agile development project can prove to be costly when tests are involved. Changing one element on a web page that 20 tests rely on will require one to go through these 20 test routines and update each one to adapt to this newly introduced change.
Not only can this be really time consuming, but a serious de-motivating factor when it comes to implementing automated tests early on. But, what if we could make the change in one place only, and have every relevant test routine use it?
In this article, we will take a look at automated tests in Selenium, and how we can use Page Object models to write maintainable and reusable test routines. Page Object Model in Selenium Page Object model is an object design pattern in Selenium, where web pages are represented as classes, and the various elements on the page are defined as variables on the class.
Page Factory in Selenium is an extension to Page Object and can be used in various ways. In this case we will use Page Factory to initialize web elements that are defined in web page classes or Page Objects.
Web page classes or Page Objects containing web elements need to be initialized using Page Factory before the web element variables can be used. This is done through the use of FindBy annotations.
To do that, we need to automate the following steps: Visit www.
At this point, if auto build is enabled, dependencies should start downloading automatically. Now, we can start creating our Page Object classes. The premise — eliminating the need to duplicate code anywhere within your suite of tests. It seems so obvious. Why would anyone want to copy and paste code? The duplication of code is surprisingly a common problem among software and automation development.
It mainly comes from beginner-level programmers. Why is code duplication so very bad? Your test breaks and you need to update your code, then you need to find everywhere else it was copied and update it. At this point, it is assumed that you already have Ruby and the selenium-webdriver gem installed on your computer. Please refer to Appendix, Getting Started with Selenium, for step-by-step installation instructions. Our fully ported test into Ruby looks like this: The rst two lines are require 'rubygems' and require 'selenium-webdriver', which tell the Ruby interpreter that we want to use some gems; specically, we want to the selenium-webdriver gem: From this point on, we will reference back the selenium variable anytime we wish to give new directions to Firefox browsers.
Finally, selenium. After you run this command, you will see a Firefox window open; navigate to your website and search for cheese. Our test has been ported from Selenium IDE to Ruby, and we learned some new, fun skills such as simple Ruby commands and command-line navigation in the process! Introducing Test:: Unit Now that we have ported our test into Ruby, you probably noticed that even though our test does some stuff, it actually does not really test anything.
Yes, it searches for cheese on the website, but it does not actually validate that anything was found or not found. As far as we are concerned, this test is a complete failure, because it not only doesn't test anything useful, but also because it has no failure conditionit will always pass. However, this is a pretty good time to introduce Test:: The Test:: Unit framework is a simple testing framework that comes with Ruby. Testing frameworks allows us to better organize our individual tests and verify that everything on the page looks as expected with built-in methods called assertions.
An assertion is what a test framework uses to conrm that something is a certain way. Assertions need two things to workan expected outcome and an actual outcome. The expected outcome is dened in the test and the actual outcome is the result from the application when we run the test.
Let's convert our search test to use the Test:: Unit framework. We will do this in three steps: Convert the test le into a CheeseFinderTest class that inherits functionality from the Test:: Even though it is not required, Ruby convention demands us to save the file name to match the name of the class contained in the file. Add an assertion to make the test meaningful.
After completing the rst step, our test le will look like this: The period. If a given test fails, you will see an F character in that position: This is pretty cool, isn't it? We got all of this information about our test by only adding 3 new lines of actual code! As our suite keeps growing, these statistics will continue to change, and the test count should keep going up while failure count should stay down.
However, as we can still see, there are 0 assertions in our test. Let's add some assertions so that we are actually testing something! Introducing asserts Test:: In this test case, we will be using the assert method to check whether the search for cheese gives the No Results Found message. Let's walk through the individual steps required to add assertions to our tests: The code for this is as follows: Once we nd the entry element, we can use the text method to get the full string seen on the page: Finally, we will use the include?
This Ruby method returns true if the characters we are looking for are present in the string.
The code looks something like this: After all of this is set up for the assertion, we can now pass in the result of the word search into an assertion. As long as we keep getting No Results Found, our tests will keep passing. Let's take a look at the nal version of our test: Our test is now ofcially testing the website!
But we are not done yet; let's see what will happen when we force it to fail. Let's modify line 13 to expect a different result: Never consider a test complete unless you have seen it fail due to incorrect expectations. Often in a rush to get a test complete, we forget to test that it fails when it should, which gives us false green builds.
These types of tests are not just useless, but harmful as they give us a false sense of security about the build. Our modied code looks like the following: By modifying the expected result to say 5 Results Found, our test will fail in the following manner: In the current state of our test, on assertion failure the test suite exits but does not close the Firefox window. This allows us to examine the last page our test nished on.
In Chapter 3, Refactoring Tests, we will discuss the teardown method, which will clean up the test environment every time the test nishes. Interactive test debugging Nothing is more exciting than to see your tests running, and running fastreally fast! Computers are great at taking bad instructions and running them really fast.
The problem, of course, comes from the fact that when something goes wrong it is too fast for you to see it. You will run into a test failure, which no one can explain, almost on a daily basis.
Tests, which fail intermittently, can be the source of frustration in your life. But don't despair; there are ways to track them down and x them. We will go into detail on how to track down and get rid of intermittent test failures in Chapter 5, Stabilizing the Tests. But in this section, we will take a look at a simple tool built into Ruby, called debug. Since Ruby is an interpreted language, you are able to stop test execution on any of your test environments without any fancy debugging tools.
Let's play around with it, I promise it will be fun! Perform the following steps: Let's add one simple line, require 'debug', to the beginning of our test so that it looks like this: Now save it and run the test again. You will see that a Firefox window opened up and is just sitting on a blank white page. Take a look at the terminal; it will look something like this: We have halted our test execution and entered into the Interactive Ruby Shell irb , which is a command-line tool for controlling Ruby.
This is a great tool for debugging tests, because all of the memory objects are available at your ngertips. You can "quite literally" control your tests from here if you type in the proper commands. Let's take it for a spin. In the terminal irb session, type in selenium. With Ruby 2. Ruby 2. X tends to halt the execution in the Kernel class, which is one step before line 10 of our test le.
By sending the next line command in irb, we step back into the test le and have access to the selenium variable. You can run clicks, asserts, or anything else your tests can do and more. You are able to walk through your tests one line at the time, step into any method, or completely alter the course of the test. Here are some basic commands on how to control your test: Description Command Next line in the test n Step into method s Continue c Exit irb and continue execution exit The debugging tool mentioned here is by far the simplest tool available.
It is built into every version of Ruby, but will not give us any fancy features. In compiled languages such as Java or C , we can rely on the IDE to provide a user interface rich debugger. For a feature-rich debugger in Ruby, check out the Pry gem found at http: Using the debugger tool can be a little intimidating at times.
If you ever get stuck, just close the terminal window and start again. You will soon be as comfortable with the debugger as with any other tool in your arsenal. Summary This concludes our rst chapter; we got a lot accomplished in it. First we discussed the advantages of using Selenium and other OSS tools over the expensive commercial tools.
After that we installed Selenium IDE and recorded our rst test script, followed by the step-by-step deconstruction of each command performed in the script.
We then proceeded to convert the recorded test into Ruby programming language, comparing each command from the IDE with its Ruby equivalent. Finally, we started working with the Test:: Unit testing framework and then learned about test assertions. We nished the chapter by making the test fail on purpose and played with the Ruby debugger. In the next chapter, we will add a couple of new tests and start to dive deeper into the Test:: We will also talk about test suite design patterns that emerge from growing your test suite.
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